Some speak of transforming power structures in society that oppress the poor, while others talk of the economic participation needed to … 2. Vibrant democracies are characterized by a continuous expansion of the available forms of participation. As one of the key words in development, participation is used by actors from very different political backgrounds. one of the aspects of our culture that many are most proud of is the extent to which they can take part in the political system purpose within a specific context; where “formal political participation is defined as not anti-systemic and does not directly challenge the underlying legitimacy of the central government.” 9 By contrast, informal forms of political participation are primarily characterized by voicing or acting on anti-systemic opinions. Voting is the most usual form of Political Participation Voter Turnout refers to the percentage of the qualified voting age population that actually turn out on polling day. In order to give a contextual explanation of political participation, the paper draws on the social movement literature. This expansion has confronted many researchers with the dilemma of using either a dated conceptualization of participation excluding many new Seven types of community participation (adapted from Pretty 1994 and Cornwall 1996) 1. Manipulative participation (Co-option): Community participation is simply a pretence, with people's representatives on official boards who are unelected and have no power. A good turn out often indicates a healthy democracy. The basics of political participation: Understanding and applications Students then receive the handout “Conventional and Unconventional Political Participation.” The handout clarifies and specifies types of political participation, as well as provides students with scenarios that give them opportunities to apply what they’ve learned. Britian has more than often had a lower turnout than other European countries Lack of conceptual clarity poses real risks. analysis of other forms of political participation like campaigning, taking part in demonstrations, or signing a petition. Six Forms of Participation 5 Campaigners Communalists Parochial Participants • Vote but also like to get involved in campaign activities • Better educated than the average voters • Distinguished by their interest in the conflicts, passions, and struggle of politics • Clearly identified with one political party • … Passive participation (Compliance): Communities participate by being told what has been Exactly this theoretical gap in political participation research presents the main focus of this paper. Representatives from opposite ends of the political spectrum use the language of participation but mean different things.

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