He drowned, and the judge directed that if the boy’s death was appreciated by the defendants as a virtual certainty then the jury should convict of murder. Before being thrown into the river, the victim had stated that he was not able to swim as he lost his glasses in the attack. Guilty: Dwayne Dawkins, Darren Matthews and Brian Alleyne Four youths who attacked a "promising" A-level student before leaving him to drown have been convicted of his killing. R v Matthews and Alleyne  Facts The defendants threw the victim into a river where he drowned, not intending the death of the victim, as the victim should have been able to swim The Court concluded that the ratio of Woollin is that proof a defendant foresaw it was virtually certain they would cause death or gbh is merely evidence from which the jury can infer that the defendant intended to cause death or grievous bodily harm to the victim. ©2010-2020 Oxbridge Notes. Therefore, the Judge must make clear that a jury is not required to make this finding. 14 v Motor Accidents Insurance Bureau [2009, Australia], Calico Printers’ Association v Barclays Bank (1931), Caltex Oil Pty v The Dredge “WillemStad” [1976, Australia], Cambridge Water v Eastern Counties Leather , Captial and Counties Plc v Hampshire County Council , Car & Universal Finance v Caldwell , Case 10/68 Società Eridania v Commission , Case 11/70 Internationale Handelgesellschaft , Case 112/84 Michel Humblot v Directeur des services fiscaux , Case 13/83 Parliament v Council (Transport Policy) , Case 148/77 Hansen v Hauptzollamt de Flensburg (Taxation of Spirits) , Case 152/84 Marshall v Southampton Health Authority (Marshall I) , Case 167/73 Commission v France (French Shipping Crews) , Case 168/78 Commission v France (Tax on Spirits) , Case 170/78 Commission v UK (Wine and Beer) , Case 178/84 Commission v Germany (Beer Purity) , Case 179/80 Roquette Frères v Council , Case 261/81 Walter 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Spencer v Commissioners of Customs and Excise , Case C-84/94 UK v Council (Working Time Directive) , Case T-526/10 Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami v Commission (Seal Products Case) , Castorina v Chief Constable of Surrey , Caswell v Dairy Produce Quota Tribunal , Catholic Child Welfare Society v Various Claimants , Central London Property Trust v High Trees House , Cheltenham & Gloucester Building Society v Norgan , Cheltenham & Gloucester Plc v Krausz , Chevassus-Marche v Groupe Danone [2008, ECJ], Christmas v General Cleaning Contractors , Chubb Fire Ltd v Vicar of Spalding , Circle Freight International v Medeast Gold Exports , City of London Building Society v Flegg , Co-operative Insurance v Argyll Stores , Cobbe v Yeoman’s Row Management Ltd , Cole v South Tweed Heads Rugby League FC [1994, Australia], Colour Quest Ltd v Total Dominion UK Plc , Cooke v Midland Great Western Railway of Ireland , Cooper v Wandsworth Board of Works , Corbett v Cumbria Cart Racing Club , Corby Group Litigation Claimants v Corby Borough Council , Couch v Branch Investments [1980, New Zealand], Council of Cvil Service Unions v Minister for the Civil Service (The GCHQ Case) , Crest Nicholson Residential (South) Ltd v McAllister , Crimmins v Stevedoring Industry Finance Company [1999, Australia], Crown River Services v Kimbolton Fireworks , CTN Cash and Carry Ltd v Gallagher Ltd , Cuckmere Brick Co v Mutual Finance , Cunliffe-Owen v Teather and Greenwood , Curtis v Chemical Cleaning & Dyeing Co , Customs and Excise Commissioners v Barclays Bank Plc , Daraydan Holidays v Solland International , Darlington Borough Council v Wiltshier Northern , Davis Contractors v Fareham Urban District Council , Desmond v Chief Constable of Nottinghamshire Police , Dimes v Grand Junction Canal Proprietors , Doody v Secretary of State for the Home Department , Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Co v New Garage and Motor Co , Edgeworth Construction Ltd v Lea [1976, Canada], Entores v Miles Far East Corporation , Environment Agency v Empress Car Co , Equal Opportunities Commission v Secretary of Sate for Employment , Equity & Law Home Loans v Prestidge , Erlanger v New Sombrero Phosphate Co , Esso Petroleum v Customs and Excise Commissioners , Fundamental rights and the European Union, Primacy and competence of the European Union, European Asian Bank v Punjab Sind Bank (No.
2) , R v Broadcasting Complaints Commission, ex p Owen , R v Chief Constable of Devon, ex p Central Electricity Generating Board , R v Chief Constable of Lancashire, ex p Parker , R v Chief Constable of Merseyside Police, ex p Calveley , R v Chief Constable of North Wales, ex p Evans , R v Chief Constable of Sussex, ex p International Traders Ferry , R v Crown Court at Reading, ex p Hutchinson , R v Disciplinary Committee of the Jockey Club, ex p Aga Khan , R v Governors of Brockhill Prison, ex p Evans (No. In R v Matthews and Alleyne, the Court of Appeal concluded that the Woollin test was an evidential rather than substantial rule of law: judges ought to instruct jurors that they may interpret what they would see as certain knowledge on the defendant's part of the virtually certain consequence of death as evidence of intention, but Woollin does not substantively define a secondary type of intention. He drowned, and the judge directed that if the boy’s death was appreciated by the defendants as a virtual certainty then the jury should convict of murder. Written by Oxford & Cambridge prize-winning graduates, Includes copious adademic commentary in summary form, Concise structure relating cases and statutes into an easy-to-remember whole. Murder: Reform - Sixth Form Law Adams, R v  Devlin J. The defendants knew that the defendant was unable to swim when they threw him into the river. students are currently browsing our notes. Re C (Female Genital Mutilation and Forced Marriage: Fact Finding)  EWHC 3449 (Fam): Should the standard of proof be different for vulnerable witnesses. Foresight of a virtual certainty does not alone constitute indirect intention for murder.
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