Ottoman Empire, Spanish Empire France, although Roman Catholic, was a rival of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. It wasn’t all bloodshed however. Food, for some civilians, became so scarce that many were reduced to eating grass, or tree bark, to survive. At first, this act of rebellion by Protestant citizens of Bohemia against their Catholic, rulers, remained a simple local issue. It may have taken place in Europe rather than Westeros, but the stakes were just as high, and the penalties for failure just as deadly, in this 17th century Game of Thrones. Wallenstein's army marched north, occupying Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and Jutland itself, but was unable to take the Danish capital Copenhagen on the island of Zealand. The war can be divided into 4 major phases: The Bohemian Revolt, the Danish intervention, the Swedish intervention and the French intervention. Ferdinand had been educated by the Jesuits, and was a Catholic. (1992). Christian's poor luck was with him again when all of the allies he thought he had were forced aside: England was weak and internally divided, France was in the midst of a civil war, Sweden was at war with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and neither Brandenburg nor Saxony were interested in changes to the tenuous peace in eastern Germany. The precise death toll of the Thirty Years War will likely never be known, but the sheer size of the estimates of both military and civilian losses are staggering and wouldn’t be surpassed until the conflicts of the 20th century. By the Spring of 1635, all Swedish resistance in the south of Germany had ended. Using innovative new infantry tactics, and redefining the use of artillery with light and heavy field pieces, the Swedish King destroyed his Habsburg counterpart. In 1625, Denmark marched in against the Holy Roman Empire and its Spanish allie, . This made the France-Habsburg rivalry even worse. By its end, at least eight million had died, Central Europe was in ruins, and both peasants and princes alike had seen their fortunes destroyed, while others had soared beyond expectations, laying the foundations for empires which would stand for centuries more. When Arras fell, the way was opened to the French to take all of Flanders. In some lordships and cities, the number of Calvinists, Catholics, and Lutherans were approximately equal. Its main rival was the Bourbon dynasty, which ruled over France.  With both Trier, Alsace and Lorraine all in French hands and the Dutch in charge of Limburg, the Channel and the North Sea, the "Spanish Road" connecting Hapsburg Spain with the Hapsburg possessions in the Netherlands and Austria was severed. In 1648 the Swedes (commanded by Marshal Carl Gustaf Wrangel) and the French (led by Turenne and Condé) defeated the Imperial army at the Battle of Zusmarshausen and Lens. To fight him, Ferdinand II employed the military help of Albrecht von Wallenstein, a Bohemian nobleman who had made himself rich from the confiscated estates of his countrymen. Ferdinand II decisively defeated Frederick V at the Battle of White Mountain, near Prague, on 8 November 1620. What was the legacy of the Thirty Years War? The king-elect then sent two Catholic councillors (Wilhelm Grav Slavata and Jaroslav Borzita Graf Von Martinicz) as his representatives to Hradčany castle in Prague in May 1618. The war lasted for 30 years, but the problems that caused the war were not fixed for a long time after the war was over. During the Thirty Years War, most of the faux trials and actual executions took place in relatively quiet areas, with the ever present dread of a possible attack likely playing a role.  Some of the Protestant leaders of Bohemia feared they would be losing the religious rights granted to them by Emperor Rudolf II in his Letter of Majesty (1609). Starvation and disease proved to be the most devastating weapons at the disposal of the armies of the era. 6,000 Transylvanians He famously married a series of six wives in his search for political alliance, marital bliss and a healthy male heir. Catholic Encyclopedia. All Rights Reserved. 150,000 French The Thirty Years' War rearranged the European power structure. In addition, the Spanish ambassador to Vienna, Don Íñigo Vélez de Oñate, persuaded Protestant Saxony to intervene against Bohemia in exchange for control over Lusatia. France was now the chief Western power. , The persecutions began in the Bishopric of Würzburg, which was then under the leadership of Phillip Adolf von Ehrenberg, an ardent supporter of the Counter-Reformation, who was eager to assert Catholic authority in the territories he administered. In 1630, a Dutch fleet of 70 ships had taken the rich sugar-exporting areas of Pernambuco (Brazil) from the Portuguese but had lost everything by 1654. It began as a fight about religion — the Protestants and Catholics were the two groups that disagreed. Like Christian IV before him, Gustavus Adolphus came to aid the German Lutherans, to forestall Catholic aggression against his homeland, and to obtain economic influence in the German states around the Baltic Sea; he was also concerned about the growing power of the Holy Roman Empire, and, like Christian IV, was heavily subsidized by Cardinal Richelieu, the Chief Minister of Louis XIII of France, and by the Dutch. Four centuries on, the Thirty Years War remains an enigma to many. The Russo-Polish Peace of Polyanov in 1634 ended Poland’s claim to the tsarist throne but freed Poland to resume hostilities against its Baltic archenemy, Sweden, which was now deeply embroiled in Germany. Calvinism came quickly into Germany. Wallenstein and Gustavus Adolphus clashed in the Battle of Lützen (1632), where the Swedes prevailed, but Gustavus Adolphus was killed. The latter provision, known as the reservatum ecclesiasticum, gave rise to a war in 1583–88 when the archbishop of Cologne declared himself a Protestant but refused to resign: in the end a coalition of Catholic princes, led by the duke of Bavaria, forced him out. Böhme, Klaus-R (2001). The capture of Mansfeld's field chancery revealed the Savoyards' involvement, and they were forced to bow out of the war. Emperor Matthias, who had no children, had died leaving the throne to Ferdinand II. Still, the Holy Roman Empire may have controlled much of Europe at the time, though it was essentially a collection of semi-autonomous states or fiefdoms. The so-called Defenestration of Prague provoked open revolt in Bohemia, which had powerful foreign allies.
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